Types of writing: understand which are the main ones

During the preparation for the entrance exam, for the ENEM or even selection processes, it is essential to study the different types of essays, understanding what the requirements of each one are and the differences between them.

It is not enough to have correct writing and respect the rules of spelling and grammar. Knowledge about the style and textual structure are essential to meet what was requested by the panel and get a good score; after all, this is one of the criteria evaluated — and not following the type of text requested can reset your grade.

Do you know what types of writing exist? To help with your studies, we list and explain the primary modalities charged. Check out!


The dissertation is a type of argumentative writing in which the author must approach a particular subject through the exposition of ideas, argumentation and their point of view. It is essential to convey credibility and consistency with the arguments and data presented, paying attention to the persuasive format of the speech. The structure must contain:

  • introduction (thesis): the author must present the ideas that will be defended;
  • development: the ideas indicated in the introduction must be developed, convincing the reader based on arguments and concrete data;
  • Conclusion (new thesis): the outcome of the text must be coherent based on the arguments used in writing.

The language must be impersonal and objective, more common in the 3rd person singular and adopting longer phrases or periods. Seriousness is also essential, so the ideal is to avoid colloquial terms, slang and gerund in construction.

In Enem, the writing charged is of the essay-argumentative type. The difference is that the presentation of a proposal for social intervention is also required to solve the problem presented in the theme.


Account texts are those that recount a story based on actual or fictitious facts. Newspapers and books, for example, often adopt this model to tell stories that happened.

On the other hand, the fictional narration is known for storybooks, which are not committed to reality and allow the author to create facts according to his desire and imagination. The elements of this type of writing are:

  • plot;
  • space;
  • characters;
  • weather.

The structure is also differentiated. It starts with the presentation (as if it were the introduction), which explains the characters and circumstances of the story.

Then there is the conflict or complication, where the text develops to bring the reader to a climax. This is the point in narrative where there is a critical moment, which will need an outcome. This part amounts to development.

Finally, the outcome is the solution of the conflict addressed in the development. That is, it is equivalent to the conclusion of the story. In the narrative, the author can adopt the following writing styles:

  • 1st person: character narrator, who participates in the story.
  • 3rd person: observer narrator, who does not participate in the story;
  • 1st and 3rd person: omniscient narrator, does not participate in the story, but can intervene in the narrative as a 1st person.


A description is an essay with the objective of representing with words certain objects, people, places or events. The text should contain a detailed narration about a certain subject so that the reader can create an image in his mind about what was described.

The author’s point of view can be developed in two ways: objective or subjective. The objective description, which is emotionless, with simple and direct language, with the purpose of not allowing more than one interpretation of what was written. The subjective is the one in which the author works the subject in a richer way, expressing emotions and allowing the reader to interpret the text in a broader way.

Because it has the function of transmitting an image to the reader, the presence of adjectives and adjective phrases is constant to best characterize the item described. The greatest difficulty is that, by its nature, this is a stationary newsroom, which can make it tedious. As such, it is important to adopt clear and dynamic language to hold the reader’s attention.


A letter is a text designed to communicate with someone. Therefore, it has a sender (author) and a recipient and must follow this structure:

  • header, with place and date;
  • salutation;
  • text body;
  • Signature.

It must present the author’s point of view throughout the body of the text and adopt a specific language according to the recipient. If it’s a personal letter, for example, the language can be lighter and more informal.

On the other hand, it is addressed to authority, making requests and claims, the tone must be more formal and present a good capacity for argumentation. Here, it is worth noting that the argumentative letter is the most common in college entrance exams when the board chooses this type of writing.

journalistic text

The journalistic text is used in news and reports with the purpose of informing the reader about certain events or facts. Therefore, it must be clear, objective and impersonal. In general, it mixes elements from narrative and essay writings, with the inclusion of relevant data such as:

  • Dice;
  • characters;
  • motivations;
  • facts.

Furthermore, despite being a type of essay, the journalistic text can have different categories that must be studied for the entrance exam. Check it out:

  • news:
  • report:
  • editorial;
  • interview;
  • article;
  • review;
  • chronic.

As a rule, this is not an opinionated essay, and the author should not include their personal thoughts in the construction, as the objective is to pass on relevant information to the reader. However, in some specific models, such as editorial texts and articles, opinions may be included.

Therefore, when preparing for writing, it is essential to pay attention to all categories, checking their characteristics, requirements and differences. Thus, during the test, you will have more peace of mind to prepare the text according to what is exposed in the problem.

Ready! After knowing the main types of writing, it is important to study them and train their writing to ensure good results in the entrance exam. Thus, you secure a place in higher education and better develop your writing skills, which will also be important during college.

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